Authors: Shalini Kurapati, Marta Teperek, Maria Cruz, Angus Whyte

Disclaimer: In the spirit of openness and transparency, we would like to share that Shalini Kurapati wrote parts of this blog post based on the zenodo record of the presentations even though she wasn’t present during the event. Her account was verified by the remaining authors who were present.

To read Part 2 of this blog post follow this link.


 

Open Science is not always easy – skills are urgently needed

Open science is becoming a ubiquitous and recurring theme in the current academic environment. Researchers are increasingly expected to publicly share their research outputs (data, code, models etc.) as well as their publications. This often requires considerable effort from researchers to manage and curate their research outputs to make them shareable. But are these efforts appropriately rewarded? Emphasising the number of publications in high impact factor journals as the only valuable metric for academic promotion and hiring won’t motivate researchers to practise open science.

There is a lot of interest in changing the reward system to better align it with the actions researchers are expected to take towards more open research practices, for instance, the OSPP Rewards WG. Making sure that researchers have the right skills to do that is the other side of that coin. To change the rewards system, we have to understand and identify the skills researchers should be rewarded, and recognise that these may change at different stages of their academic careers. This was precisely the goal of the workshop on 26 September 2018 that we organised at TU Delft jointly with the EOSCpilot. The EOSCpilot project is laying the groundwork for the European Open Science Cloud, and wants to offer a framework for institutions and others to develop the skills needed for researchers, data stewards, and others who support research to help put open science into practice.

The workshop was aptly titled “It’s time for open science skills to count in academic careers” (#openskills18). The workshop format combined presentations on related topics with interactive group work in the afternoon. In this post, we summarise the presentations and in a separate blog post we’ll present the outcomes of the workshop and will reflect on the key findings /thoughts on future steps.

The  aim and format of the workshop  was presented by Valentino Cavalli of LIBER and EOSCPilot. In his welcome note, Mr.Cavalli explained barriers to open science in the European and wider academic context. These barriers include a culture of disincentives, fragmentation between infrastructures, interoperability issues and access to computational resources. He highlighted that the workshop would focus on the culture of disincentives, which has to be changed such that researchers at all careers levels are equipped with relevant skills and suitably rewarded for putting them into practice

Opening talks

The opening talks were delivered by Ms. Anne de Vries (PhD students Network Netherlands), Prof. Bartel Van de Walle (TU Delft) and Mr. Rinze Benedictus (UMC Utrecht).

Ms. Anne de Vries shared the perspectives of the eurodoc, the European council of doctoral candidates and junior researchers on open science policy and practices. She stated that it is important to identify and train open science skills for early career researchers based on their disciplines. Early career researchers should also be made aware on how to make their outputs FAIR and how open science skills will not only take science forward but also positively influence their careers. She also reflected that senior staff should support early career researchers in practising open science and thus also need appropriate education and training.

Prof. Bartel van de Walle spoke on the open science policies and practical examples from his domain of information management during humanitarian crisis response.  He also presented the challenges of implementing open science due to the inertia in research institutions that are often resistant to change. He insisted that open science is not just a requirement of funding agencies but is the right way forward to democratise science and achieve the UN’s sustainable development goals. He also pointed out the waves of change and indicated an example of successful implementation of open science policies in practices like McGill University’s Neurological institute and hospital. He concluded his speech by saying that open science is just science done right.

Mr. Rinze Benedictus delivered a powerful message with his talk: institutions should not equate the impact of a research work to an impact factor of a journal. He displayed the reinforcing loop of how authorship in high impact journals is an incentive for researchers for receiving more funding and recognition and to continue with the cycle of publishing to increase citation scores. He showed the damning evidence from The Lancet and Nature about the reproducibility crisis in science due to the earlier said focus on publishing to establish scholarship. While referring to global initiatives such as the DORA to change  attitudes among institutions and individual researchers, he gave a concrete example of how UMC Utrecht is implementing good practices in rewarding researchers. For instance, at evaluation meetings at UMC, a researcher would be asked “How did you arrive at your research question and what are your next steps”? Rather than the traditional “what is your measurable output”.

Dr. Simon Kerridge (CASRAI) gave a talk on the CreDIT taxonomy. The problem that CreDIT tries to solve is that the current authorship criteria in publication doesn’t give sufficient recognition for various contributions of researchers. In addition, authorship credit alone doesn’t support accountability for the research results. He stated that since science is increasingly a team effort, credit needs to be given where due to incentivise researchers for their unique contribution. He explained that the CreDiT taxonomy aims to offer a role based credit systems, where the contributors can assign themselves credit for 14 tasks: writing, supervision, review, data analysis, project management and so on. Finally, he presented the vision for the future of increasing the awareness of the CreDiT taxonomy and to create feedback mechanism to evaluate future versions and to link it platforms like ORCID and Crossref.

Closing remarks

The closing remarks of the workshop were provided by Ms. Anette Björnsson (European Commission) and by Mr. Kevin Ashley (Digital Curation Center & EOSCPilot).

Ms. Anette Björnsson reflected on the current initiatives within the European Commission towards changing academic rewards. She highlighted the importance of several recent reports produced by EC Working Groups: Evaluation of Research Careers fully acknowledging Open Science Practices, the report on Next Generation Metrics and Turning FAIR Data into reality. All of them influence the current thinking at the European Commission and also help shape the mission and vision of the European Open Science Cloud. She also stressed that large collaborative efforts at the European level require cooperation and consensus between all EU Member States, which often require time and patience. The situation is no different when it comes to the implementation of policies and changing practices in open science: individual Member States are at different stages of implementation and have varying levels of infrastructure and personnel currently available to them. However, Ms.Björnsson ensured us that while sometimes slower than desired, change is coming. Given that EOSC is a collaborative, pan-European endeavour, the chances are that changes brought with the EOSC will also be more effective and sustainable long-term.

Mr. Kevin Ashley then continued reflecting on the discussions which took place throughout the day, and in particular, the points raised by researchers during the interactive workshop part. He stressed that the common priority to all researchers, regardless of their career stages seems to be to get the recognition they deserve for Open Science activities. He reflected that there are (numerous) barriers to practical implementation of Open Science and to rewarding those practising Open Science appropriately, but that these barriers should not stop anyone from changing the status quo. As Dr. Maria Cruz beautifully summarised in her tweet, based on Mr. Ashley’s words: It’s possible to change the academic rewards system. It’s possible for PhD students. It’s possible for senior researchers. And it’s possible for institutions.

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The format, content and outcomes of the hands-on workshop during the event, together with some reflections and thoughts on next steps are published in a separate blog post

Additional resources

  • All presentations of the speakers can be viewed and downloaded here.